📚 Libro: Practices of Irrigation and On-farm Water Management - M. H. Ali


Practices of Irrigation and On-farm Water Management


Autor: M. H. Ali.
Volume 2


Crop production depends on the successful implementation of the agricultural and water management technologies. This is vital to feed the growing world population. The implementation of technologies is also important to minimize environmental degradation resulting from agricultural activities. Agricultural and natural resources engineers are applying scientific principles for the optimal use of natural resources in agricultural production.

Water is the scarcest resource. The importance of the judicious use of water in agricultural sector for sustaining agricultural growth and the retardation of environmental degradation needs no elaboration. Judicious use of water for crop production requires knowledge of water conveyance and application methods, their designing, strategic management of water resources, land and watershed management, etc. Increasing efficiency in conveyance and pumping systems are also of great concern.

Irrigation management strategy practiced in normal soils may not be appropriate in problematic soils such as saline soils. This book covers all of the above aspects. In addition, the book covers some recent dimensions such as pollution from agricultural fields, modeling in irrigation and water management, application of the geographical information system (GIS) in irrigation and water management, and renewable energy resources for irrigation. Sample workout problems are provided to explain the design and application methodologies in practice.

The comprehensive and compact presentation of this book will serve as a textbook for undergraduate students in Agricultural Engineering, Biological Systems Engineering, Bio-Science Engineering,Water Resource Engineering, and, Civil and Environmental Engineering. It will also be helpful for the students of relevant fields such as Agronomy, Biological Sciences, and Hydrology. Although the target audience of this book is undergraduate students, postgraduate students will also be benefited from the book. It will also serve as a reference manual for field engineers, researchers, and extension workers in several fields such as agricultural engineering, agronomy, ecology, hydrology, civil, water resource, and environmental engineering.

Effort was made to keep the language as simple as possible, keeping in mind the readers of different language origins. Throughout the book, the emphasis has been on general descriptions and principles of each topic, technical details, and modeling aspects. However, the comprehensive journal references in each area should enable the reader to pursue further studies of special interest. In fact, the book covers broad interdisciplinary subjects.


1 Water Conveyance Loss and Designing Conveyance System
1.1 Water Conveyance Loss
1.2 Designing Open Irrigation Channel
1.3 DesigningPipe for IrrigationWaterFlow

2 Water Application Methods
2.1 General Perspectives of Water Application 
2.2 Classification of Water Application Methods
2.3 Description of Common Methods of Irrigation 
2.4 Selection of IrrigationMethod

3 Irrigation System Designing
3.1 Some Common Issues in Surface Irrigation SystemDesigning
3.2 Border Irrigation System Design
3.3 Basin Irrigation Design 
3.4 Furrow Irrigation System Design
3.5 Design ofSprinklerSystem

4 Performance Evaluation of Irrigation Projects
4.1 Irrigation Efficiencies
4.2 Performance Evaluation

5 Water Resources Management
5.1 Concept, Perspective, and Objective of Water Resources Management
5.2 Estimation of Demand and Supply of Water 
5.3 Strategies for Water Resources Management 
5.4 Sustainability Issues in Water Resource Management 
5.5 Conflicts in Water Resources Management
5.6 Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource 
5.7 Challenges in Water Resources Management 

6 Land and Watershed Management 
6.1 Concepts and Scale Consideration 
6.2 Background and Issues Related to Watershed Management
6.3 Fundamental Aspects of Watershed Management
6.4 LandGrading inWatershed 
6.5 Runoff and Sediment Yield from Watershed 
6.6 Watershed Management
6.7 Watershed Restoration and Wetland Management 
6.8 Addressing the Climate Change in Watershed Management

7 Pollution of Water Resources from Agricultural Fields and Its Control
7.1 Pollution Sources
7.2 Types of Pollutants/Solutes 
7.3 Extent ofAgriculturalPollution 
7.4 SoluteTransportProcesses inSoil 
7.5 Measurement ofSoluteTransportParameters 
7.6 Estimation of Solute Load (Pollution) from AgriculturalField 
7.7 Control of Solute Leaching from Agricultural and Other Sources
7.8 Models in Estimating Solute Transport from Agricultural and Other Sources

8 Management of Salt-Affected Soils
8.1 Extent of Salinity and Sodicity Problem
8.2 Development of Soil Salinity and Sodicity
8.3 Diagnosis and Characteristics of Saline and Sodic Soils
8.4 Impact of Salinity and Sodicity
8.5 Crop Tolerance to Soil Salinity and Effect of Salinity onYield 
8.6 Management/Amelioration of Saline Soil 
8.7 Management of Sodic and Saline-Sodic Soils
8.8 Models/Tools in Salinity Management
8.9 Challenges and Need

9 Drainage of Agricultural Lands 
9.1 Concepts and Benefits of Drainage
9.2 Physics of Land Drainage 
9.3 Theory of Water Movement Through Soil and Toward Drain 
9.4 Design of Surface Drainage System 
9.5 Equations/Models for Subsurface Drainage Design 
9.6 Design of Subsurface Drainage System
9.7 EnvelopeMaterials 
9.8 Models in Drainage Design and Management 
9.9 Drainage Discharge Management: Disposal and Treatment
9.10 Economic Considerations in Drainage Selection and Installation 
9.11 Performance Evaluation of Subsurface Drainage 

10 Models in Irrigation and Water Management 
10.1 Background/Need of a Model 
10.2 Basics of Model: General Concepts, Types, Formulation andEvaluationSystem
10.3 Overview of Some of the Commonly Used Models
10.4 Crop Production Function/Yield Model 
10.5 Regression-Based Empirical Models for Predicting CropYieldfromWeatherVariables 

11 GIS in Irrigation and Water Management 
11.1 Introduction 
11.2 Definition of GIS 
11.3 Benefits of GIS Over Other Information Systems 
11.4 MajorTasks inGIS 
11.5 Applications ofGIS 
11.6 Techniques Used in GIS 
11.7 Implementation of GIS
11.8 Data and Databases for GIS 
11.9 Sources of Spatial Data
11.10 Data Input
11.11 GIS-BasedModeling orSpatialModeling 
11.12 Remote Sensing Techniques

12 Water-Lifting Devices – Pumps 
12.1 Classification ofWater-LiftingDevices 
12.2 Definition,Purpose, andClassification ofPumps 
12.3 Factors Affecting the Practical Suction Lift ofSuction-ModePump 
12.4 CentrifugalPumps
12.5 Description of Different Types of Centrifugal Pumps 
12.6 Other Types of Pumps 
12.7 Cavitation inPump .
12.8 Power Requirement in Pumping 
12.9 Pump Installation,Operation, andControl
12.10 Hydraulics inPumpingSystem 
12.11 Pumps Connected in Series and Parallel 
12.12 Pump Performance and Pump Selection 
12.13 SampleWorkoutProblems onPump

13 Renewable Energy Resources for Irrigation 
13.1 Concepts and Status of Renewable Energy Resources 
13.2 Need ofRenewableEnergy
13.3 Mode ofUseofRenewableEnergy 
13.4 Application of Solar Energy for Pumping Irrigation Water 
13.5 WindEnergy 
13.6 WaterEnergy 
13.7 Bio-energy 
13.8 GeothermalEnergy 
13.9 Modeling the Energy Requirement
13.10 Factors Affecting Potential Use of Renewable Energy in Irrigation 
13.11 Renewable Energy Commercialization: Problems and Prospects

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